For a person with dementia, the need for a good quality of life is not diminished. However, without some assistance from family and carers, their ability to achieve purpose and pleasure is much more difficult.
Ideally, activities should:
- Compensate for lost activities
- Promote self esteem
- Maintain residual skills and not involve new learning
- Provide an opportunity for enjoyment, pleasure and social contact
- Be sensitive to the person’s cultural background
Helpful Guidelines for Planning Activities
Consider all that has made the person unique: knowing the person’s former lifestyle, work history, hobbies, recreational and social interests, travel and significant life events.
Activities can re-establish old roles: Make use of skills that have not been forgotten, such as buttering bread, washing up or watering, sweeping and raking in the garden. These are also ways in which a person with dementia can contribute to the household and feel useful. Encourage an area of responsibility no matter how small.
Activities can give relaxation and pleasure: A person with dementia may enjoy an outing even if they do not remember where they have been.
Simple and unhurried activities that are meaningful are best: Give the time and space necessary to allow the person to do as much as possible. Focus on one thing at a time. Break down activities into simple, manageable steps. Communicate one instruction at a time.
Prepare a safe working area: People with dementia often have difficulty with visual perception and coordination. Ensure that surfaces are uncluttered with few distractions and noise. Good lighting, without glare, individual seat preferences and correct work heights are all important. Using plastic containers might help to avoid breakages.
Don’t allow activities to reinforce inadequacy or increase stress: Abilities can fluctuate from day to day. Activities can be adapted and tried another time if not successful or enjoyable.
Use times to suit the person’s best level of functioning: To ensure maximum success when carrying out activities it is best to consider the times of day when the person is at their best.
Don’t over stimulate: Be selective with outings. Avoid crowds, constant movement and noise which many people with dementia find overwhelming.
Allow an emotional outlet: For many people, music or contact with babies, children or animals provide positive feelings. The opportunity to relive treasured moments can be deeply satisfying. If reading skills have deteriorated make individual audiotapes. Locate picture books and magazines in the person’s areas of interest.
Include sensory experiences: Some sensory experiences
Consistency is important: It can be helpful to write out an activities care plan if different people are caring for the person. This will ensure that activities are consistent and are suited to the individual needs of a person with dementia.
Activities play a significant part in the dealing with changed behaviours: Knowing what helps to calm or divert a person when they are restless or distressed is very important. This can be particularly helpful for respite workers.
Don’t give up: Mistakes and failures will happen, but don’t let the person with dementia feel like a failure. Keep trying.