Elderly population is the fastest growing population in India, increasing from 6.7% in 1991 to an estimated 10% in 2021. As the number and proportion of elderly population increases, there is a need to educate and create awareness among working professionals, elderly individuals and family members to join hands in preventing falls among elderly individuals.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people age 65 and older with prevalence of 14% to 53%. Common injuries due to falls are head injuries, shoulder and forearm fractures, spine fractures, pelvic fractures, and hip fractures. Mortality after falls is high (53-86%).
RISK FACTORS FOR FALL IN ELDERLY
• Muscle weakness
• Gait deficit
• Balance & postural deficit
• Visual & hearing deficit
• Vitamin D deficiency
• Uneven ground
• Slippery surfaces
LIFESTYLE CHOICES FOR FALL PREVENTION
Assessment of fall risk factors is important to develop effective fall prevention programs. It is cost-effective and easier to prevent rather than treat falls. Maintaining your health and staying physically active can help to reduce risk of falling. Detailed documentation of the fall event, consequent injuries, and management is important.
UNDERSTAND YOUR HEALTH AND MEDICATIONS
•Get an annual eye checkup and a physical examination for cardiac and blood pressure problems.
•Maintain a diet with adequate dietary calcium and Vitamin D.
•Check with your doctors about any side effects of your medications.
•Take medications on schedule with a full glass of water, unless otherwise instructed.
Sensory retraining exercises: Exercises on different surfaces like in sand, standing on soft mat etc.
Strengthening exercises: Exercises with weights (dumbles / resistance bands)
3.Stretching Exercises :